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Review, Jan 2019: Impact of Gut Microbiota on Host Glycemic Control

Review, 2018: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Type 2 and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: New Insights into “Old” Diseases

Review, Dec 2017 Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Drives and Implies Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Diabetes Mellitus and Related Metabolic Diseases

Review, Dec 2017 Microbial Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance:

FMT: Washed microbiota transplantation improves patients with high blood glucose in South China (Sep 2022, n=195)

Altered Gut Microbiota Activate and Expand Insulin B15-23-Reactive CD8+ T-Cells (Feb 2019) "In mice with low incidence of autoimmune diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment led to male mice developing accelerated diabetes"

"Fragments of bacterial cell wall released by lysozyme 1 in the intestinal lumen are necessary to regulate insulin trafficking and glucose tolerance in pancreatic beta cells". Microbiota guides insulin trafficking in beta cells (Jul 2019)

Intermittent administration of a fasting-mimicking diet intervenes in diabetes progression, restores β cells and reconstructs gut microbiota in mice (Nov 2018). Previous studies have shown that the gut microbiome is responsible for the benefits of fasting, & the benefits can be transferred via FMT.

Some viruses produce insulin-like hormones that can stimulate human cells—and have potential to cause disease

Diabetes reversal after bypass surgery linked to changes in gut microorganisms

Gut bacteria imbalance increases diabetes risk

Analysis of a large cohort group has found a significant connection between gut microbes and 2 of the largest risk factors for diabetes: body mass index (BMI) and lipid levels:

Immune system uses gut bacteria to control glucose metabolism:

Metformin & Berberine Alter Gut Microbiota Composition in Diabetes - - -

Pleiotropic effects of metformin: Shaping the microbiome to manage type 2 diabetes and postpone ageing (2018):

Anti-diabetes drug, Acarbose, works via gut microbiome. Nonmicrobicidal Small Molecule Inhibition of Polysaccharide Metabolism in Human Gut Microbes: A Potential Therapeutic Avenue (2018):

The gut microbiota plays key role in diabetes treatment: -

Researchers find bacterial protein that boosts insulin-producing cells in zebrafish:

Recombinant Incretin-Secreting Microbe Improves Metabolic Dysfunction in High-Fat Diet Fed Rodents (2017):

Taking synbiotic supplements for 6 weeks among patients with gestational diabetes mellitus had beneficial effects on markers of insulin metabolism, TAG and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations. (2016)

Probiotic and synbiotic supplementation could improve metabolic syndrome in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial (2018): "treatment decreased metabolic syndrome prevalence by 17% and 23% respectively"

Gut Microbiota-Stimulated Innate Lymphoid Cells Support β-Defensin 14 Expression in Pancreatic Endocrine Cells, Preventing Autoimmune Diabetes (2018, mice):

Long term but not short term exposure to obesity related microbiota promotes host insulin resistance (2018):

Immune Response to Gut Microbes Linked to Diabetes Risk. "the findings suggest a mechanistic connection between immune recognition of microbes and autoimmunity genetics" (Feb 2019). Association of HLA-dependent islet autoimmunity with systemic antibody responses to intestinal commensal bacteria in children

Type 1:

Review, 2018: Gut microbiome in type 1 diabetes: A comprehensive review

Review, 2018: Modulation of the immune system by the gut microbiota in the development of Type 1 Diabetes

Review, 2017: Microbiota: Diet can protect against type 1 diabetes:


Fecal microbiota transplantation treatment of autoimmune-mediated type 1 diabetes: A systematic review (Dec 2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus with malnutrition: a case report (Aug 2022) "nausea and vomiting were significantly relieved. In addition, constipation, nutritional status, and blood glucose control (fasting blood glucose, HbA1c) gradually improved"

Fecal microbiota transplantation treatment of autoimmune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus (Aug 2022, n=2) "Our results suggest that FMT is an effective treatment for autoimmune T1DM"

Faecal microbiota transplantation halts progression of human new-onset type 1 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial (Oct 2020, n=20) Three autologous or allogenic (healthy donor) FMTs over a period of 4 months, 12 month follow up.

T1 Antibiotics:

Single Course of Antibiotics Early in Life May Increase Type 1 Diabetes Risk (2018): -

A study from the Aalto University finds that environmental factors such as the prevalence of antibiotics are part of what makes Finns the most likely in the world to contract Type I diabetes:

Antibiotic-mediated gut microbiome perturbation accelerates development of type 1 diabetes in mice:

Clostridial Butyrate Biosynthesis Enzymes Are Significantly Depleted in the Gut Microbiota of Nonobese Diabetic Mice (2018). "results support a model for gut microbiota influence on T1D development involving bacterium-produced metabolites as butyrate"

Evaluation of different mucosal microbiota leads to gut microbiota-based prediction of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice (Oct 2018). "Our results suggest that the algorithm could potentially be used in early prediction of future T1D development."

Study shows gut microbe composition different in young children with and without type 1 diabetes

Yale study shows that gut microbes could trigger type 1 diabetes:

Italian 2017 study ties inflammation, gut bacteria to type 1 diabetes:

Multi-omic characteristics of the gut microbiome in individuals with T1DM compared to healthy relatives show a greater influence of microbes rather than genetics of T1DM. This study identifies the expression of T1DM-associated microbial functions to distinct taxa:

Gut bacteria can alter the protective effects of a gene that wards off type 1 diabetes: - Protective major histocompatibility complex allele prevents type 1 diabetes by shaping the intestinal microbiota early in ontogeny

Type 1 diabetes risk linked to intestinal viruses. One virus may protect against disease, others may increase risk: -

Innate Viral Receptor Signaling Determines Type 1 Diabetes Onset

Type 2:

Review, 2021: Reconstruction of intestinal microecology of Type 2 diabetes by fecal microbiota transplantation: Why and how

Review, 2018: Inflammation and Gut-Brain Axis During Type 2 Diabetes: Focus on the Crosstalk Between Intestinal Immune Cells and Enteric Nervous System


Prospective Study Reveals Host Microbial Determinants of Clinical Response to Fecal Microbiota Transplant Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients (Mar 2022, n=37) "Out of 17 T2DM patients, 11 were found to significantly improve T2DM symptoms"

Fecal microbiota transplantation reverses insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: A randomized, controlled, prospective study (Jan 2023, n=31)

By destroying the mucous membrane in the small intestine and causing a new one to develop, scientists stabilized the blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Duodenal Mucosal Resurfacing Elicits Improvement in Glycemic and Hepatic Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes—One-Year Multicenter Study Results (2018):

Microbially Produced Imidazole Propionate Impairs Insulin Signaling through mTORC1 (Oct 2018): "Our findings indicate that the microbial metabolite imidazole propionate may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes"

Metabolic improvement in obese patients after duodenal–jejunal exclusion is associated with intestinal microbiota composition changes (Feb 2019) "Improvement of obesity and type 2 diabetes after treatment may be promoted by changes in fecal microbiota composition"

Causal relationships among the gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids and metabolic diseases (Feb 2019): "These data provide evidence of a causal effect of the gut microbiome on metabolic traits"

Fiber-fermenting bacteria improve health of type 2 diabetes patients (2018):

Further analysis reveals new gut microbiome markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus

A human gut phage catalog correlates the gut phageome with type 2 diabetes (2018):

Researchers from the University of Eastern Finland found that an intestinal bacteria may protect against type 2 diabetes. Indolepropionic acid is a metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria, which comes from a high-fiber diet:

Type II diabetes may be reversible using caloric restriction: /r/AdvancedFitness/comments/4bjg5t/type_ii_diabetes_may_be_reversible_using_caloric/

Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 attenuated type 2 diabetes via gut microbiota dependent mechanism [mice]:!divAbstract - Full study via sci-hub.

Targeting gut microbiota: Lactobacillus alleviated type 2 diabetes via inhibiting LPS secretion and activating GPR43 pathway [rats]: - Full study via sci-hub.

Gut Microbiome Composition Is Predictive of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in a Population Cohort of 5,572 Finnish Adults (Jan 2022)

The association of type II diabetes with gut microbiota composition:

Systematic review assessing the effectiveness of dietary intervention on gut microbiota in adults with type 2 diabetes (2018): "Dietary intervention was found to modulate the gut microbiota and improve glucose control in individuals with type 2 diabetes."

Diabetes-Associated Alterations in the Cecal Microbiome and Metabolome are Independent of Diet or Environment in the UC Davis Type 2-Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model (2018):