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Sleep and the Microbiome

The role of the gut microbiome on the quality of our sleep. And the importance of sleep on maintaining an eubiotic gut microbiome.


Review, 2020: When Rhythms Meet the Blues: Circadian Interactions with the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

Review, 2020: Circadian rhythms and the gut microbiota: from the metabolic syndrome to cancer

Review, 2020: Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Gut Motility. An Overview of Underlying Mechanisms and Associated Pathologies

Review, 2019: Potential Role for the Gut Microbiota in Modulating Host Circadian Rhythms and Metabolic Health

Review, 2019: Microbiome diurnal rhythmicity and its impact on host physiology and disease risk

Review, 2016: The Metronome of Symbiosis: Interactions Between Microbes and the Host Circadian Clock:


FMT: Fresh Washed Microbiota Transplantation Alters Gut Microbiota Metabolites to Ameliorate Sleeping Disorder Symptom of Autistic Children (Sep 2023, n=24)

Gut microbe movements regulate host circadian rhythms (2016): - Microbiota diurnal rhythmicity programs host transcriptome oscillations

The intestinal microbiota programs diurnal rhythms in host metabolism through histone deacetylase 3 (2019):

Butyrate, a metabolite of intestinal bacteria, enhances sleep (May 2019, mice and rats)

Body clock affects how the immune system works. (Jan 2020, mice) The clock gene Bmal1 inhibits macrophage motility, phagocytosis, and impairs defense against pneumonia.

Gut microbiota depletion by chronic antibiotic treatment alters the sleep/wake architecture and sleep EEG power spectra in mice (Nov 2020)

Chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation-induced depression-like behavior, energy metabolism and microbial changes in rats (April 2019) "These data suggest that a specific situation of circadian disturbance, chronic PSD-induced alterations in gut microbiota and related host changes in metabolism may be the pathogenesis of depression"

Gut microbiome diversity associates with sleep quality in healthy adults Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans (Oct 2019)

Light-entrained and brain-tuned circadian circuits regulate ILC3s and gut homeostasis (2019, mice)

The circadian clock regulates the diurnal levels of microbial short-chain fatty acids and their rhythmic effects on colon contractility in mice (2018):

Sleep apnea:

Causal relationship between Gut Microbiota and Obstructive sleep apnea (May 2023) "Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis indicated that a causal relation is existed between specific gut microbiota and OSA at the genetic prediction level"

Transplanted gut bacteria causes cardiovascular changes in mice (Aug 2022) Gut microbiota mediate vascular dysfunction in a murine model of sleep apnea: effect of probiotics

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